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Restore SSDT(Shadow)
If the SSDT(Shadow) was hooked by bad guys, how can we restore it to the original state?
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Unhook SSDT

x64

To unhook SSDT, we must obtain the original value of the SSDT function offset which has been replaced. Well it's a little trick to do this.
First, we have to calculate the offset from SSDT base address to kernel base address, for example in WinDbg ( Machine OS is Win7 x64):
1: kd> lmDmnt
Browse full module list
start end module name
fffff800`03e50000 fffff800`0443a000 nt (pdb symbols) C:\Program Files (x86)\Windows Kits\10\Debuggers\x64\sym\ntkrnlmp.pdb\3844DBB920174967BE7AA4A2C20430FA2\ntkrnlmp.pdb
1: kd> dps nt!KeServiceDescriptorTable
fffff800`04101840 fffff800`03ed1300 nt!KiServiceTable
fffff800`04101848 00000000`00000000
fffff800`04101850 00000000`00000191
fffff800`04101858 fffff800`03ed1f8c nt!KiArgumentTable
We have
ntBase = 0xfffff80003e19000;
ntTableBase = 0xfffff80003e9a300;
// So the offset is
tableRva = ntTableBase - ntBase; // --> 0x81300
// table offset to file base in ntoskrnl.exe file
tableOffset = RvaToOffset(tableRva); // --> 0x80900
Then read the kernel executable to memory (just like we read ntdll.dll in SSDT HOOK) to get original SSDT base in file ( the default path is "c:\windows\system32\ntoskrnl.exe", but to double-check, we get its image path from kernel module information )
// Get pSystemInfoBuffer by ZwQuerySystemInformation routine
PUCHAR ntFilename = pSystemInfoBuffer->Module[0].FullPathName;
PVOID pNtFileBase = ReadFile(ntFilename);
ULONG_PTR ssdtFileBase = pNtFileBase + tableOffset;
and analyze its PE header to get its ImageBase field.
PIMAGE_DOS_HEADER pDosHeader = DOS_HEADER( pNtFileBase );
PIMAGE_NT_HEADERS pNtHeaders = NT_HEADERS( pNtFileBase );
ULONG_PTR ntDefaultBase = pNtHeaders->OptionalHeader.ImageBase;
// --> 0x140000000
Then read the first bytes of the SSDT in ntoskrnl.exe file buffer. ( For simplicity, I read them in a binary file editor which is the same as in a program)
// bytes begin at address of ssdtFileBase
A0 EC 48 40 01 00 00 00 C0 68 37 40 01 00 00 00
A0 81 07 40 01 00 00 00 80 9A 36 40 01 00 00 00
A0 B7 39 40 01 00 00 00 A0 29 39 40 01 00 00 00
and compare them with the real SSDT contents in kernel memory. ( Shows in windbg)
0: kd> dd /c 1 nt!KiServiceTable l5
fffff800`03ed1300 040d9a00
fffff800`03ed1304 02f55c00
fffff800`03ed1308 fff6ea00
fffff800`03ed130c 02e87805
fffff800`03ed1310 031a4a06
as mentioned in SSDT HOOK, the real kernel function address equals value >> 4 plus table base address.
for example the first SSDT function offset is
ULONGLONG originalOffset = 0x0040d9a0; // 0x040d9a00 >> 4
and the first 8 bytes in SSDT in ntoskrnl.exe file buffer showed above are
ULONGLONG originalBytes = 0x000000014048ECA0
Here comes the climax of the play.
0040d9a0=000000014048ECA00000000140000000813000040d9a0 = 000000014048ECA0 - 0000000140000000 - 81300
which is
originalOffset=originalBytes(ntDefaultBase+tableRva)originalOffset = originalBytes - (ntDefaultBase + tableRva)
So we can conclude that the originalBytes in nt file is actually the default address of its corresponding kernel function .
Now we can calculate the original SSDT value of any SSDT function with its index even if SSDT has been modified in runtime.
// Get default function address with index
defaultAddress = (PULONGULONG)ssdtFileBase + SSDTIndex;
originalOffset = defaultAddress - (ntDefaultBase + tableRva);
originalValue = (LONG)(originalOffset << 4);
// Remember original value is LONG type

Combine together

So the steps to get the original value of any SSDT function is:
  1. 1.
    Get kernel base address ntBase and SSDT base address ssdtBase ( like in Hook SSDT(Shadow)),
  2. 2.
    Calculate the RVA between them: tableRva
  3. 3.
    Read ntoskrnl.exe in memory and get its default image base address ntDefaultBase and original SSDT buffer ssdtFileBase
  4. 4.
    For any function we can calculate its default SSDT value with its SSDT index ,which is
LONG originalValue =
((PULONG_PTR)ssdtFileBase + Index - ntDefaultBase - tableRva) << 4

x86

In X86 platform the thing is very similar.
First we need to get the kernel base and SSDT base , as shown in Windbg:
0: kd> lmDmnt
Browse full module list
start end module name
83e4b000 8425d000 nt (pdb symbols) C:\Program Files (x86)\Windows Kits\10\Debuggers\x86\sym\ntkrpamp.pdb\C820DD65C4BC4499A56D7610BE16FD082\ntkrpamp.pdb
0: kd> dps nt!KeServiceDescriptorTable
83fb4b00 83ec9d9c nt!KiServiceTable
83fb4b04 00000000
83fb4b08 00000191
83fb4b0c 83eca3e4 nt!KiArgumentTable
we have
ntBase = 0x83e4b000 ;
ntTableBase = 0x83ec9d9c ;
// So the offset is
tableRva = ntTableBase - ntBase; // --> 0x7ed9c
// table offset to file base in ntoskrnl.exe file
tableOffset = RvaToOffset(tableRva); // --> 0x7e59c
Then read the nt file into memory( note that we need to get the right file path from SystemModuleInformation by ZwQuerySystemInformation)
// Get pSystemInfoBuffer by ZwQuerySystemInformation routine
PUCHAR ntFilename = pSystemInfoBuffer->Module[0].FullPathName;
PVOID pNtFileBase = ReadFile(ntFilename);
ULONG_PTR ssdtFileBase = pNtFileBase + tableOffset;
and analyze its PE header to get its ImageBase field.
PIMAGE_DOS_HEADER pDosHeader = DOS_HEADER( pNtFileBase );
PIMAGE_NT_HEADERS pNtHeaders = NT_HEADERS( pNtFileBase );
ULONG_PTR ntDefaultBase = pNtHeaders->OptionalHeader.ImageBase;
// --> 0x400000
The first few bytes at ssdtFileBase are : ( Opened in binary editor)
30 9C 67 00 0D 14 4C 00 6E 9B 60 00 8A 58 42 00
07 B5 67 00 96 E3 4F 00 A1 BB 6E 00 EA BB 6E 00
and the first few bytes at real SSDT in kernel memory are:
0: kd> dd /c1 nt!KiServiceTable l5
83ec9d9c 840c4c30
83ec9da0 83f0c40d
83ec9da4 84054b6e
83ec9da8 83e7088a
83ec9dac 840c6507
So we have
840c4c30 = 00679c30 - 00400000 + 83e4b000
which is
originalValue=defaultAddressntDefaultBase+ntBaseoriginalValue = defaultAddress - ntDefaultBase + ntBase
Then we can calculate the original SSDT value of any SSDT function with its index.
// Get default function address with index
defaultAddress = (PULONG)ssdtFileBase + SSDTIndex;
originalValue = defaultAddress - (ntDefaultBase + tableRva);

Unhook Shadow

Unhooking Shadow SSDT is very similar to unhooking SSDT. The steps are almost the same.

x64

  1. 1.
    Find win32k base address w32kBase and Shadow SSDT base address w32kTable ( look Find SSDT(Shadow) base address and Find win32k.sys base address)
  2. 2.
    Calculate the RVA between them: w32kTableRva
  3. 3.
    Read win32k.sys into memory and get its default image base w32kDefaultBase and original Shadow SSDT w32kTableFileBase
  4. 4.
    For any function in Shadow SSDT, we can calculate its original value by its index, which is
LONG originalValue =
((PULONG_PTR)w32kTableFileBase + Index - w32kDefaultBase - w32kTableRva) << 4

x86

  1. 1.
    ...
  2. 2.
    ...
  3. 3.
    ...
  4. 4.
    The original value in Shadow SSDT is
LONG originalValue =
(PULONG_PTR)w32kTableFileBase + Index - w32kDefaultBase - w32kTableRva
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Unhook SSDT
x64
x86
Unhook Shadow
x64
x86